Scalable Multiple Inverse-Diffusion Flame Synthesis of Graphene, Syngas and Liquid Fuel & Fabrication of Diamond-Reinforced Composites

A) A schematic multiple inverse-diffusion flames burner. B) Raman spectrum of the few-layer graphene (FLG) on Ni. C) HRTEM image of the FLG. The bottom right insert shows the electron diffraction pattern of the graphene sheet. The top left insert shows resolution magnified image of the graphitic lattice.

Invention Summary:

Carbon-based nanostructures and films define a new class of engineered materials that display remarkable physical, photonic and electronic properties. Production methods for making carbon-based nanostructures include ultrahigh vacuum annealing of SiC, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). However, these methods are not readily or economically scalable for large area applications and may be subject to batch-to-batch inconsistencies.

Researchers at Rutgers University has developed a novel method for the synthesis and processing of nanostructured materials using a scalable multiple inverse-diffusion flame (m-IDF) burner. The m-IDF method involves quenching pyrolyzed species down-stream of the flames to form nanostructured particulates or depositing pyrolyzed species onto a heated substrate to form nanostructured films, fibers, or coatings. Using various hydrocarbons as fuels, this method is well suited for processing nanostructured carbon-based materials (e.g., fullerene particles, carbon nanotubes, graphene sheets, and diamond), as well as non-oxide ceramics such as carbide, nitride, boride, and silicide phases.

In addition, it can be configured as a Flame Catalytic Reactor for converting natural gas into molecular hydrogen, syngas, liquid fuels (diesel), and chemical intermediates on site. Further, this m-IDF method can be utilized to fabricate diamond- and other hard materials (e.g., SiC, TiC, c-BN)-reinforced composites.

Market Application:

  • Synthesis of  single-layer and few-layer graphene
  • Synthesis of carbon nanotubes
  • Synthesis of molecular hydrogen, syngas & liquid fuel
  • Fabrication of diamond-reinforced composites


  • Scalability for large-area surface coverage
  • Homogeneous
  • Open-atmosphere processing
  • No prior substrate preparation
  • High growth rate
  • High purity & yield
  • Continuous processing
  • Reduced costs

Intellectual Property & Development Status:

US patent 9,388,042. Available for licensing and/or research collaboration.

Patent Information:
For Information, Contact:
Lisa Lyu
Assistant Director
Rutgers University
Graphene technology